ISSN 2043-8087
Journal of Experimental Psychopathology
 Volume 3, Issue 4, 702-723, 2012
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Absolute Level of Gamma Synchrony is Increased in First-Episode Schizophrenia During Face Processing

Authors
Steven M. Silverstein (a), Sherrie D. All (a), Judy L. Thompson (b), Leanne M. Williams (c)(d)(f), Thomas J. Whitford (c), Marie Nagy (c), Gary Flynn (c), Anthony WF. Harris (c)(d), Cherrie Galletly (e) and Evian Gordon (c)(d)(f)
(a) Division of Schizophrenia Research, University Behavioral HealthCare, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, NJ, USA
(b) Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University and New York State Psychiatric Institute, NY, USA
(c) Brain Dynamics Centre, Westmead Millennium Institute and Western Clinical School, University of Sydney, Westmead Hospital, NSW, Australia
(d) Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Sydney Medical School-Westmead, NSW, Australia
(e) Discipline of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, The Adelaide Clinic Consulting, SA, Australia
(f) Brain Resource International Database, Sydney, NSW, 2007, Australia and San Francisco, California, USA

Volume 3, Issue 4, 2012, Pages 702-723
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5127/jep.023311

Abstract
Most studies of gamma band synchrony in schizophrenia conclude that it is reduced, relative to what is observed in healthy people, during stimulus processing. However, these findings may, in part, be an artifact of greater absolute levels of synchrony in schizophrenia even at baseline. We examined absolute level of gamma band synchrony before and during emotionally neutral face processing in 28 patients with schizophrenia after their first episode of psychosis (FES) (20 male) and 71 controls (53 male) across a range of frequency bins, brain regions and time-bands. We also examined how absolute synchrony prior to stimulus onset related to synchrony change during stimulus processing, and how it related to symptoms. The FES group showed greater absolute gamma synchrony across all time-points in frontal and temporal regions. Baseline absolute synchrony predicted post-stimulus change in these regions in a pattern consistent with previous reports. However, synchrony change was not related to symptoms. These results support the recommendation that studies in this field should examine baseline absolute synchrony when attempting to characterize task-related gamma synchrony in schizophrenia.

Table of Contents
Introduction
Methods
  Participants
  Procedure
  Neutral Face Stimuli
  EEG Recording
  Gamma Synchrony Data Reduction
  Methodological Issues in Gamma Synchrony
  Statistical Analysis
Results
  'Absolute' Gamma Synchrony
  'Absolute' Baseline Gamma Synchrony
  Time-course of Gamma Synchrony Change in Response to Facial Stimuli
  'Relative' Gamma Synchrony in Relation to 'Absolute' Synchrony
  The Relation of 'Absolute' and 'Relative' Gamma Synchrony to   Positive and Negative Symptoms
Discussion
  Greater Absolute Synchrony in FEP Patients in Temporal and Fronto-  temporal Regions
  Time Course of Gamma Synchrony Change across Brain Regions
  Relation of Absolute Synchrony with Amount of Post-stimulus Change
  Relationship with Symptoms
  Limitations
Acknowledgements
  Financial Disclosure
References

Correspondence to
Steven M. Silverstein, Division of Schizophrenia Research, University Behavioral HealthCare, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 151 Centennial Ave., Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.

Keywords
gamma synchrony, first episode, face processing, schizophrenia, EEG, Brain Research and Integrative Neuroscience Network (BRAINnet)

Dates
Received 2 Jun 2010; Revised 29 Aug 2011; Accepted 8 Feb 2012; In Press 23 Sep 2012







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