ISSN 2043-8087
Journal of Experimental Psychopathology
 Volume 4, Issue 2, 133-147, 2013
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Specificity Effects in the Modification of Interpretation Bias and Stress Reactivity

Authors
Bundy Mackintosh(a), Andrew Mathews(b), Doris Eckstein(a), Laura Hoppitt(a)
(a) MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, UK
(b) University of California, Davis, USA and King's College, London. UK

Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, Pages 133-147
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5127/jep.025711

Abstract
There are now a number of experimental studies showing that modification of interpretation biases can influence later emotional vulnerability. We present a series of three experiments in which the first two studies showed no such effects, apparently due to the content of training differing in certain critical respects from that of the intended target for modification: namely, coping with the experience of failure. When content of training and emotional stressor tasks were matched in Experiment Three the expected effects of bias modification on stress reactivity was evident. In other words, over the three experiments, negative emotional response due to failure in an apparently easy (but actually difficult) cognitive test was modified as expected only when training involved both content related to achievement threat and benign appraisals for failure. These results demonstrate the importance of matching the content of training to the intended target for change and have implications for transferring cognitive bias modification methods from the laboratory to clinical settings.

Table of Contents
Introduction
Experiment 1
 Method
  Design overview.
  Materials.
  Procedure.
 Results
  Induced interpretation bias:
  Emotional reaction to failure:
 Discussion
Experiment 2
 Method
  Design overview.
  Participants.
  Materials.
  Procedure.
 Results
  Induced interpretation bias.
  Emotional reaction to failure.
 Discussion
Experiment 3
 Method
  Design overview.
  Participants.
  Materials.
  Procedure
 Results
  Induced interpretation bias
  Mood effects.
General Discussion
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

Correspondence to
Andrew Mathews, University of California, Davis, Department of Psychology, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Keywords
interpretation bias; emotional vulnerability; anxiety; training; imagery; cognitive bias modification

Dates
Received 28 Oct 2012; Revised 24 Jul 2012; Accepted 27 Jul 2012; In Press 3 Feb 2013







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