ISSN 2043-8087
Journal of Experimental Psychopathology
 Volume 5, Issue 2, 113-122, 2014
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Illusory Control in Schizophrenia

Authors
Steffen Moritz(a), Suzanne C. Thompson(b), Christina Andreou(a)
(a) University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Germany
(b) Pomona College, Department of Psychology, USA

Volume 5, Issue 2, 2014, Pages 113-122
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5127/jep.036113

Abstract
Introduction: Positive symptoms in schizophrenia often deal with themes of control. For the first time, the "illusion of control" bias was examined in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: A total of 32 patients with schizophrenia and 31 nonclinical controls were administered two versions of an illusion of control paradigm. Participants were presented two sequences of green and red stimuli and could choose to press or not press a computer key to get the (desired) green stimulus (participants should press the key to test their level of control). Later, they were asked to rate their level of control over the appearance of the green sequence. The chain of events followed a fixed pseudo-random sequence (experiment A: 75% desired events; B: 25%). Results: Both groups displayed an illusion of control bias. The subgroup with high positive symptom scores showed excessive illusion of control in experiment A relative to individuals scoring low on positive symptoms. Hallucinators scored significantly higher on illusion of control compared to both healthy individuals and non-hallucinators. Discussion: Illusion of control was elevated in high-positive-symptom patients, particularly those with hallucinations. Future studies should elucidate whether the magnitude of the illusion of control effect is moderated by the specific contents of positive symptoms, as delusions of control can manifest as active or passive control beliefs.

Table of Contents
Introduction
 Illusion of Control
 Illusion of control in schizophrenia
Methods
 Participants
 Experiment
Results
 Overall group differences on baseline and experimental variables
 Subgroup analysis
Discussion
References

Correspondence to
Steffen Moritz, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Martinistr. 52, D-20246 Hamburg, Germany.

Keywords
schizophrenia, psychosis, delusions, positive symptoms, illusion of control

Dates
Received 13 Apr 2013; Revised 10 Sep 2013; Accepted 10 Sep 2013; In Press 30 Mar 2014







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