| Volume 5, Issue 3, 244-258, 2014 |
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|Investigating Functional Properties of Depressive Rumination: Insight and Avoidance|
| Rosemary Kingston - Mood Disorders Centre, Psychology, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, UK|
| Edward Watkins - Mood Disorders Centre, Psychology, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, UK|
| Susan Nolen-Hoeksema - Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, CT|
|Volume 5, Issue 3, 2014, Pages 244-258|
|It remains unresolved why people keep ruminating even though it confers vulnerability to depression. It has been
hypothesised that rumination is reinforced by (i) increasing insight and understanding into difficulties and/or (ii)
providing a rationale for avoiding taking action, thereby avoiding aversive situations. To test this, we used an
experimental analogue to rumination about threat: Participants were confronted with being assertive about a
difficult interpersonal issue, and randomly allocated to repetitively think about this in an abstract style characteristic
of depressive rumination ("Why?") or a concrete style inconsistent with depressive rumination ("How?"). Relative to
abstract rumination, concrete thinking significantly enhanced sense of confidence, control, and assertiveness self-
efficacy, but not insight and understanding. In contrast, rumination increased justification for avoidance relative to
concrete thinking. These findings suggest that rumination does not increase insight relative to other problem-
focused thinking, but it may be reinforced by providing evidence that supports inactivity and avoidance. |
|Table of Contents|
Exposure to threatening situation: Confrontation with assertiveness task.
Manipulation of processing mode: Abstract rumination / concrete thinking interview.
Response Styles Questionnaire - Ruminative Response Scale (RSQ-RRS, Nolen-Hoeksema & Morrow,1991).
Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9, Kroenke, Spitzer, & Williams, 2001).
Sense of understanding and insight.
Sense of confidence and control.
Justification for avoidance.
Interview coding of abstract / concreteness.
Importance of understanding and insight.
Ratings of the assertiveness issue.
Interview Manipulation Check
Relationship with trait rumination.
Relationship with current depression symptoms.
|Rosemary Kingston, Psychology, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of
Exeter, Washington Singer Building, Perry Road, Exeter, EX4 4QG, UK. |
|Rumination; Depression; Cognitive Processes, Metacognitive Beliefs; Avoidance |
|Received 23 Aug 2013; Revised 11 Mar 2014; Accepted 12 Mar 2014; In Press 21 Nov 2014 |