| Volume 5, Issue 3, 259-271, 2014 |
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|Evaluating the Effect of Meta-Cognitive Beliefs about Angry Rumination on Anger with Cognitive Bias Modification|
| Julie Krans - University of Leuven, Clinical Psychology, Leuven, Belgium|
| Michelle Moulds - The University of New South Wales, School of Psychology, Sydney, Australia|
| Jessica Grisham - The University of New South Wales, School of Psychology, Sydney, Australia|
| Tamara Lang - The University of New South Wales, School of Psychology, Sydney, Australia|
| Thomas Denson - The University of New South Wales, School of Psychology, Sydney, Australia|
|Volume 5, Issue 3, 2014, Pages 259-271|
|Since the publication of Susan Nolen-Hoeksema's (1991) seminal Response Style Theory of depressive
rumination, a wealth of research has demonstrated that rumination plays an important role in the onset and
maintenance of depression. More recently, rumination has been examined within the context of anger, and findings
have suggested that ruminating about anger-inducing events heightens or maintains anger and increases
aggression. Given these unhelpful effects, why do people ruminate in response to anger? The current experiment
examined the potential role of positive beliefs about rumination in maintaining this process. We tested the
hypothesis that positive beliefs about ruminating in response to anger-provoking events would lead to increased
levels of anger and aggression. Participants engaged in cognitive bias modification (CBM) training intended to
induce positive or negative beliefs about rumination. Next, they were presented with anger-provoking scenarios
and asked to rate their predicted levels of anger and aggression in response to these scenarios. After CBM
training, all participants showed a positive belief bias towards rumination; however, this bias was more pronounced
in the positive beliefs condition. Unexpectedly, participants in the positive beliefs condition predicted that they
would have lower levels of anger than participants in the negative beliefs condition, although this difference was
reduced to a trend when implicit preference for emotional expression was controlled. The unexpected findings
suggest novel testable hypotheses, for which concrete suggestions are provided. |
|Table of Contents|
Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS).
Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ).
Emotion Regulation Implicit Association Test (ER-IAT).
Cognitive bias modification (CBM).
Test of induced bias.
Aggressive Provocation Questionnaire (APQ).
CBM Manipulation Check
Experimental Effects of CBM Training on Anger
CBM effects controlling for anxiety and ER-IAT scores.
|Michelle L. Moulds, School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052,
| anger, rumination, cbm |
|Received 6 Sep 2013; Revised 13 Feb 2014; Accepted 2 Mar 2014; In Press 21 Nov 2014 |