ISSN 2043-8087
Journal of Experimental Psychopathology
 Volume 5, Issue 3, 329-350, 2014
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Maladaptive Processing of Maladaptive Content: Rumination as a Mechanism Linking Cognitive Biases to Depressive Symptoms

Authors
  Blair Wisco - University of North Carolina, Greensboro
  Kirsten Gilbert - Yale University and Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
  Brett Marroquin - Yale University and University of California, Los Angeles

Volume 5, Issue 3, 2014, Pages 329-350
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5127/jep.038213

Abstract
Cognitive theories propose that negatively biased thinking is an important factor in the development and maintenance of depression. The mechanisms by which cognitive biases lead to depression, however, have not been thoroughly researched. One potential mechanism is that negatively biased thoughts trigger rumination, or the process of focusing passively and repetitively on the causes and consequences of one's mood, a well-established risk factor for depression. In a series of three studies, we examined rumination and other cognitive emotion regulatory strategies as mechanisms of the relationship between cognitive biases and depressive symptoms. We found consistent evidence that rumination mediates the relationship between interpretation and memory biases and depressive symptoms. The indirect effects through rumination were stronger than indirect effects through other cognitive emotion regulation strategies (dampening and worry). These findings indicate that negatively biased thinking may increase risk for depression by increasing rumination, supporting the notion that rumination is a useful target for intervention with depressed clients.

Table of Contents
Introduction
 Content and Process: The Interplay of Cognitive Biases and Rumination
 The Present Studies
General Method
Study 1
 Methods
  Participants
  Measures
  Procedure
  Data Analytic Plan
 Results
  Mediational Models
  Reverse Mediational Models
 Discussion
Study 2
 Methods
  Participants
  Measures
  Procedure
  Data Analytic Plan
 Results
  Mediational Models
  Reverse Mediational Models
 Discussion
Study 3
 Method
  Participants
  Measures
  Procedure
  Data Analytic Plan
 Results
  Mediational Model
  Reverse Mediational Model
 Discussion
Overall Discussion
Acknowledgements
References

Correspondence to
Blair E. Wisco, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Psychology, PO Box 26170, Greensboro, NC, 27402

Keywords
Rumination, depression, cognitive bias, interpretation bias, memory bias

Dates
Received 26 Aug 2013; Revised 22 Feb 2014; Accepted 4 Mar 2014; In Press 21 Nov 2014







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