ISSN 2043-8087
Journal of Experimental Psychopathology
 Volume 7, Issue 2, 190-204, 2016
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It’s all about control: Memory bias in anxiety is restricted to threat cues that signal controllable danger.

Authors
  Lies Notebaert - University of Western Australia
  Benita Large - University of Western Australia
  Colin MacLeod - University of Western Australia
  Patrick J.F. Clarke - University of Western Australia

Volume 7, Issue 2, 2016, Pages 190-204
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5127/jep.048515

Abstract
Although cognitive models of emotion propose that elevated trait anxiety may be associated with a memory bias for threatening information, evidence for such an anxiety-linked memory bias has been highly inconsistent. Given the crucial role of anxiety in preparing individuals to deal with impending danger, we hypothesized that an anxiety-linked memory bias may be restricted to cues that signal danger which can be controlled. High and low trait anxious participants performed a memory task in which three sets of neutral words were presented. These words acted as either controllable threat cues (as they signalled a loud noise burst that could be avoided through a secondary task), uncontrollable threat cues (signalled an unavoidable noise burst), or non-threat cues (did not signal a noise bursts). As hypothesised, high anxious participants showed better recognition of controllable threat cues as compared to non-threat cues, whereas no memory bias for uncontrollable threat cues was observed. No memory bias for either type of threat cue was observed in low anxious participants. Future research directions into the relationship between anxiety-linked memory bias and danger controllability are discussed.

Table of Contents
Introduction
Method
 Participants
 Materials and Apparatus
  Anxiety measures.
  Neutral word generation.
  Memory task.
 Procedure
Results
 Participant Characteristics and Questionnaires
 Memory Test Performance
 Contributions of Trait and State Anxiety
 Neutralising Responses
Discussion
Acknowledgements
References
Appendix A

Correspondence to
Dr Lies Notebaert

Keywords
anxiety; memory bias; controllability; cognitive bias; threat

Dates
Received 6 May 2015; Revised 18 Jan 2016; Accepted 18 Jan 2016; In Press 7 Feb 2016







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