ISSN 2043-8087
Journal of Experimental Psychopathology
 Volume 7, Issue 2, 205-224, 2016
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Pain, Affect, and Rumination: An Experimental Test of the Emotional Cascade Theory in Two Undergraduate Samples

Authors
  Konrad Bresin - Unversity of Illinois Ubrana Champaign
  Edelyn Verona - University of South Florida

Volume 7, Issue 2, 2016, Pages 205-224
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5127/jep.047715

Abstract
The emotional cascade theory predicts that the experience of pain disrupts a recursive feedback loop between rumination and negative affect. Previous research has established mood regulation effects of pain, but no study has examined whether pain disrupts the relationship between rumination and negative affect. In two studies, we used a novel task measuring startle magnitude and self-reported unpleasantness during rumination and distraction and before and after the experience of a painful and non-painful stimulation. Results across the two studies and a quantitative review were mixed. The main prediction that a pain relative to no-pain stimulus would decrease negative affect during rumination received some support only for the startle measure. A secondary prediction that the pain-related decrease in negative affect would be larger in rumination than distraction was not supported for either measure. The results highlight the importance of understanding the effects of pain of different modalities of emotional responding.

Table of Contents
Introduction
 Pain, Startle, and Negative Affect
 Current Study
Study 1
 Method
  Participants
  Procedure
  Dependent Measures
  Data Analysis
 Results
  Manipulation Check: Concentration
  Main Analyses
Discussion and Study 2
 Method
  Participants
  Procedure
 Results
 Discussion and Meta-analysis
 Results
 Discussion
General Discussion
 Startle Results
 Reconciling Startle Magnitude and Self-reported Unpleasantness Results
 Limitations and Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

Correspondence to
Konrad Bresin

Keywords
Self-injury, Rumination, Startle, Pain, Emotional Cascade

Dates
Received 19 Feb 2015; Revised 20 Jan 2016; Accepted 20 Jan 2016; In Press 7 Feb 2016









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