ISSN 2043-8087
Journal of Experimental Psychopathology
 Volume 7, Issue 2, 205-224, 2016
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Pain, Affect, and Rumination: An Experimental Test of the Emotional Cascade Theory in Two Undergraduate Samples

  Konrad Bresin - Unversity of Illinois Ubrana Champaign
  Edelyn Verona - University of South Florida

Volume 7, Issue 2, 2016, Pages 205-224

The emotional cascade theory predicts that the experience of pain disrupts a recursive feedback loop between rumination and negative affect. Previous research has established mood regulation effects of pain, but no study has examined whether pain disrupts the relationship between rumination and negative affect. In two studies, we used a novel task measuring startle magnitude and self-reported unpleasantness during rumination and distraction and before and after the experience of a painful and non-painful stimulation. Results across the two studies and a quantitative review were mixed. The main prediction that a pain relative to no-pain stimulus would decrease negative affect during rumination received some support only for the startle measure. A secondary prediction that the pain-related decrease in negative affect would be larger in rumination than distraction was not supported for either measure. The results highlight the importance of understanding the effects of pain of different modalities of emotional responding.

Table of Contents
 Pain, Startle, and Negative Affect
 Current Study
Study 1
  Dependent Measures
  Data Analysis
  Manipulation Check: Concentration
  Main Analyses
Discussion and Study 2
 Discussion and Meta-analysis
General Discussion
 Startle Results
 Reconciling Startle Magnitude and Self-reported Unpleasantness Results
 Limitations and Conclusions

Correspondence to
Konrad Bresin

Self-injury, Rumination, Startle, Pain, Emotional Cascade

Received 19 Feb 2015; Revised 20 Jan 2016; Accepted 20 Jan 2016; In Press 7 Feb 2016

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