ISSN 2043-8087
Journal of Experimental Psychopathology
 Volume 7, Issue 3, 451-465, 2016
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The Moderating Role of Attention Biases to Threat on the Link between Behavioral Inhibition and Anxiety in Children

Authors
  Sara Nozadi - University of Maryland, Department of Human Develo
  Sonya Troller-Renfree - University of Maryland, Department of Human Develo
  Lauren White - National Institute of Mental Health, Emotion and D
  Tahl Frenkel - Ziama Arkin Infancy Institute, Herzliya
  Kathryn Degnan - The Catholica University, Department of Psychology
  Yair Bar-Haim - Tel Aviv University, School of Psychological Scien
  Daniel Pine - National Institute of Mental Health, Emotion and D
  Nathan Fox - University of Maryland, Department of Human Develo

Volume 7, Issue 3, 2016, Pages 451-465
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5127/jep.052515

Abstract
The current study aimed to extend the results of White et al. (2015) by examining the moderating role of attention biases at age 5 on the relations between Behavioral Inhibition (BI) during toddlerhood and anxiety symptoms at age 10. Children’s BI at 2 and 3 years of age was measured using laboratory assessments, and attention bias towards threat was assessed using a dot-probe task at age 5. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to identify the probability for children’s membership in an anxiety class, which reflected primary anxiety at age 10 that was not comorbid with symptoms of inattention. Maternal and self-report measures of children’s mental health, collected via questionnaires and semi-structured diagnostic interviews, were used as indicators for the LCA. The results revealed that threatrelated attention biases moderated the relation between BI and anxiety, such that BI positively predicted the probability of being in the anxiety class only when children had an attention bias towards threat. BI was unrelated to anxiety when children had no attention bias or an attention bias away from threat. These results indicated that attention biases during preschool may differentiate between inhibited children who are at heightened risk for anxiety later in childhood from those who are not. The results are discussed in a framework detailing the role of attention biases in increasing the sensitivity for anxiety-related problems in children who display high levels of BI during early childhood.

Table of Contents
Introduction
Method
 Participants
  BI composite score.
  Attention bias towards threat.
  Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems.
 Attrition
 Data Analytic Strategy
Results
 Psychopathology Classes
 Preliminary Analyses
 Relations of BI, Attention Bias and Psychopathology Outcomes
Discussion
References

Correspondence to
Sara S. Nozadi

Keywords
Anxiety, Behavioral Inhibition, Attention Biases, Preadolescence, Latent Class Analysis

Dates
Received 13 Nov 2015; Revised 24 Jun 2016; Accepted 24 Jun 2016; In Press 26 Jun 2016







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